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Business Basics 108 – Leaders

Sometimes a person can be a good manager but not a good leader, and vice versa. Managers work to produce order and stability, while leaders embrace and manage change. Leadership is creating a vision for others to follow, establishing corporate values and ethics, and transforming the way the organization does business, in order to improve its effectiveness and efficiency. Good leaders motivate workers and create the environment for them to motivate themselves. Management carries out the leader’s vision.

Leaders must communicate a vision and rally others around that vision. She should be open and sensitive to the concerns of followeres, give them responsibility and win their trust. To be a successful leader, she must influence the actions of others.

Leaders must establish corporate values, including concern for employees, customers, the environment, and the quality of the company’s products. When a company sets its business goals, it is also defining its values. The number one trait others look for in a leader is honesty, followed by the leader being forward looking.

Leaders must promote corporate ethics, including an unfailing demand for honesty and an insistence that everyone in the company be treated fairly. Ethical decision making is a key component of leadership.

Leaders must embrace change. The leader’s most important job may be to transform the way the company does business so that it is more effective and efficient, doing things better with fewer resources to accomplish the same objectives.

Leaders must stress accountability and responsibility. Leaders need to be held accountable and to feel responsible for their actions. A key word is transparent, presenting the company’s facts and figures in a way that is clear and apparent to all stakeholders.

Organizations need both leaders and employees who can help lead. Any employee can motivate others to work well, add to the company’s ethical environment, and report ethical lapses that may occur. There is no one set of traits that describe a leader, nor is there one leadership style that works best in all situations. Some of the more effective leadership styles include autocratic, participant (democratic) and free-rein leadership.

Autocratic leadership means making managerial decisions without consulting others. This style is effective in emergencies and when absolute followership is needed. This form of leadership is also sometimes effective with new, relatively unskilled workers who need clear direction and guidance. The participant (democratic) leadership style involves managers and employees working together to make decisions. Employee participation in decisions may not always increase effectiveness, but it usually increases job satisfaction. Organizations that value traits such as flexibility, good listening skills and empathy often favor the participant style of leadership. Employees meet to discuss and resolve management issues by giving everyone some opportunity to contribute to decisions. And in the free-rein style of leadership the managers set objectives and allow employees freedom to do whatever is appropriate to accomplish those objectives. This style is most successful in organizations in which managers supervise professionals, such as doctors, engineers and others. The traits managers need in such organizations include warmth, friendliness and understanding. There is a trend of more companies adopting this style of leadership with at least some of their employees.

Leadership is a continuum along which employee participation varies, from purely boss-centered leadership to employee-centered leadership. The best style for any particular organization depends on what its goals and values are, who is being led, and in what situation. For example, a manager may be autocratic but friendly with a new trainee, democratic with an experienced employee, and free-reining with a trusted long-term supervisor. There is no such thing as a leadership trait that is effective in all situations, or a leadership style that always works best. As such, a successful leader in one organization may not be successful in another. A truly successful leader has the ability to adapt her leadership style to what is most appropriate to the situation and employees.

Historically many organizations used the directing process of leadership, whereby leaders gave explicit instructions to workers, telling them what to do to meet the organization’s goals and objectives. This often included giving assignments, explaining routines, clarifying policies, and providing feedback on performance. Organizations that may still use this model include fast food restaurants and small retailers, where the employees do not have the skill or experience to work on their own, at least at first. More progressive leaders empower employees to make decisions on their own, giving employees the authority to make a decision without consulting the manager, and the responsibility to respond quickly to customer requests. Managers often resist the empowerment model, feeling reluctant to give up their decision-making power. However in companies that implement this concept, the manager’s role is less that of a boss and director and more that of a coach, assistant, counselor or team member. Enabling is the key to the success of empowerment, and gives workers the education and tools they need to make decisions. Without the right education, training, coaching and tools, workers cannot take on the responsibilities of decision-making roles that make empowerment work. Many high-tech and internet companies use the empowerment model.

Finding the right information, keeping it in a readily accessible place, and making it known to everyone in the firm together constitute the tasks of knowledge management, which is necessary in empowering employees. The first step of knowledge management is determining what knowledge is most important, after which the company sets out to find answers to those questions. Knowledge management tries to keep people from reinventing the wheel every time a decision must be made. Each person should ask what he still doesn’t know, and whom to ask for the information. It is as important to know what’s not working as it is to know what is working. The key to success is learning how to process information effectively and turn it into knowledge that everyone can use to improve processes and procedures.

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Business Basics 107 – Creating a Unified System

After planning a course of action, managers must organize the company to accomplish their goals, including allocating resources, assigning tasks and establishing procedures. The managerial heirarchy includes top management, the highest level such as the president and other key executives who develop strategic plans. This often includes the chief executive officer (CEO), chief operating officer (COO), chief financial officer (CFO) and chief information officeer (CIO), although it has become more commonplace to see companies eliminate the COO position.

The CEO is often also the company’s president and is responsible for all top-level decision making, including introducing change to the company. Her tasks include structuring work, controlling operations and rewarding people to ensure that everyone works to carry out her vision. The CFO is responsible for obtaining funds, planning budgets, collecting funds and such. The CIO is responsible to get the right information to other managers so they can make correct decisions, and is more important than ever to the success of the company given the crucial role that information technology has come to play in every business.

Middle management includes general managers, division managers and branch and plant managers who are responsible for tactical planning and controlling. Many middle management positions have been eliminated in recent years due to cost cutting and down-sizing, and the companies have given the remaining managers more employees to supervise. Middle managers are an important role to most businesses.

Supervisory management includes those directly responsible for supervising workers and evaluating their daily performance, and are often known as first-line managers or supervisors.

People are typically not taught to be managers, but due to their skill move up the corporate ladder and become managers. They tend to become deeply involved in showing others how to do things, helping and supervising them, and generally being active in the operating task. The further up the ladder she moves, the less important her original job skills. At the top of the ladder, the need is for people who are visionaries, planners, organizers, coordinators, communicators, morale builders and motivators. A successful manager must have technical skills, human relations skills and conceptual skills.

Technical skills involve the ability to perform tasks in a specific discipline or department; human relations skills involve communication and motivation and enable managers to work through and with people, and also include skills associated with leadership; and conceptual skills involve the ability to see the organization as a whole and the relationship among its various parts. Conceptual skills are required in planning, organizing, controlling, systems development, problem analysis, decision making, coordinating and delegating. First-line managers need skills in all three areas, but spend most of their time on technical and human relations tasks, such as assisting operating personnel and giving directions. On the other hand, top managers need few technical skills and spend almost all of their time on human relations and conceptual tasks. Thus a person who is successful as a supervisor might not be competent at higher levels and vice versa.

Staffing is a management function that includes hiring, motivating and retaining the best people available to accomplish the company’s objectives. To get the right kind of people to staff an organization, the company has to offer the right kinds of incentives. Many people will not work for companies where they are not treated well or get fair pay. They may leave to find a better balance between work and home. A company with innovative and creative workers can go from a start-up to a major competitor in just a few years. Staffing has become an increased part of each manager’s assignment, and all managers need to cooperate with human resource management to get and keep good workers.

More recently, social media manager has become one of the fastest growing careers. Social media continues to grow in importance as it presents the face and voice of an organization. Social media managers need to be curious, able to adapt quickly, and understand the role social media plays in the organization’s goals. They also need skills in writing, graphic and video design, public speaking, customer service and community engagement, behavioral psychology, analyzing social media metrics and budgeting. Being proficient in some of these areas is more important than being strong in all of them.

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Business Basics 106 – Management and Leadership

Part 1 – The Manager

In the past, managers were called bosses and did their jobs by telling people what to do, watching over them to ensure they did it, and reprimanding those who did not. While some managers still behave this way, the role has evolved. Most managers today are more collaborative, emphasizing teams and team building. They tend to guide, train, support, motivate and coach employees rather than tell them what to do. They use cooperation rather than order giving and discipline. They give their employees enough independence to make their own informed decisions about how best to get the job done.

Managers must practice the art of getting things done through organizational resources, including workers, financial resources and equipment. They communicate strategy, help employees prioritize projects, facilitate cooperation and ensure that processes and systems align with company goals. Managers have evolved from years past. They are skilled communicators, team players, planners, organizers, motivators and leaders.

Management is the process used to accomplish organizational goals through planning, organizing, leading and controlling people and other organizational resources. These four functions are the heart of management.

Planning includes anticipating trends and determining the best strategies and tactics to achieve organizational goals and objectives. Planning is a key management function because accomplishing the other functions depends heavily on having a good plan. Organizing is a management function that includes designing the structure of the organization and creating conditions and systems in which everyone and everything work together to achieve the organization’s goals and objectives. Organizations must remain flexible and adaptable to meet changing customer needs, and it is the manager’s job to follow these trends and shift accordingly. Leading means creating a vision for the organization and communicating, guiding, training, coaching and motivating others to achieve goals and objectives in a timely manner. The trend is to empower employees by giving them freedom to become self-directed and self-motivated. Controlling is a management function that establishes clear standards to determine whether an organization is progressing toward its goals and objectives, rewarding people for a job well done and taking corrective action as appropriate.

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Business Basics 103

Part 3 – Corporate Social Responsibility

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) refers to companies as good citizens, concerned with the welfare of society and not just the owners. CSR is based on fairness, integrity and respect. While a company’s loyalty and obligation is to its owners, being a good corporate citizen can increase profitability in the long run. Companies with a good CSR reputation are cosidered ethical and often attract and retain better employees, enjoy greater employee loyalty, and draw more customers.

There are a variety of methods for CSR, including corporate philanthropy, corporate social initiatives, corporate responsibility and corporate policy. In addition to money, many companies allow their employees to volunteer during company time.

We know that companies have a responsibility to customers, pleasing them by offering real value. All things being equal, customers tend to favor the socially conscious company over its less socially conscious competitors. In fact, customers are often willing to pay more for goods from the socially responsible company. Thus CSR is also a tool to attract new customers. The question then becomes, how to make customers aware. Social media has become a low-cost, efficient way of conveying a company’s CSR efforts, allowing companies to reach and interact with a broad and diverse audience. However the company must live up to its hype or face dire consequences. If a company does not follow through on its CSR as claimed, it loses customers’ trust; customers do not want to do business with a company they don’t trust.

Many investors also believe that it makes financial sense to invest in companies engaged in CSR , and that ethical behavior adds to the bottom line.

Companies that treat their employees with respect usually earn the respect of their employees. This mutual respect can have a significant impact on the company’s profit. Retaining good employees saves money, is good for business and also good for morale. A disgruntled employee can wreak havoc on a business, thus loss of employee commitment, confidence and trust in the company can be extremely costly.

CSR has many benefits, each of which can increase a company’s profitability while also doing good for society as a whole.

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Business Basics – 102

Economics – The study of how society chooses to employ resources to produce goods and services and distribute them for consumption among various competing groups and individuals.

Business cycles – The periodic rises and falls that occur in economies over time.

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Economic boom – Business is booming.

Recession – Two or more consecutive quarters of decline in the gross domestic product.

Depression – A severe recession, usually accompanied by deflation.

Recovery – When the economy stabilizes and starts to grow again. This eventually leads to an economic boom, starting the cycle over again.

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Business Basics – 101

Part 4 – The Business Environment

The business environment is the surrounding factors that either help or hinder business development. These include the economic and legal environment, the technological environment, the competitive environment, the social environment and the global business environment. Businesses that create wealth and jobs should grow and prosper in a healthy environment. Although businesses can’t control their environment, they should pay careful attention so they can adapt as it changes.

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People are often willing to start new businesses if they believe the risk of losing their money is not too great. Both the economic system and the way the government works with or against businesses can have a strong impact on the risk level. For instance, government can actively promote entrepreneurship by allowing private ownership of businesses and passing laws that enable people to write enforceable contracts, among others. The Uniform Commercial Code is an example of laws that regulate business agreements such as contracts and warranties, thus allowing companies to know they can rely on one another.

Information technology has had the most comprehensive and lasting impact on businesses, and affects all industries. It has changed the way people communicate with one another, as well as created ways to reach suppliers and customers. Technology is a broad term including phones, computers, copiers, mobile devices, medical imaging machines, robots, the Internet, social media and software programs and apps that make business processes more effective, efficient and productive. Effectiveness means producing the desired result; efficiency is producing goods and services using the least amount of resources; and productivity is the amount of output you generate given the amount of input, e.g. number of hours worked. E-commerce, the buying and selling of goods online, is important in both the business-to-consumer and business-to-business markets.

Competition among businesses seems to be at an all time high. Some have found a competitive edge by focusing on quality which, when coupled with good value, i.e. oustanding service at competitive prices, allows them to stay competitive. Exceeding customer expectations is critical. Today’s consumers want not only good quality and low prices but great service as well. In the past business had been more management-driven, in today’s competitive environment it is more customer-driven. Successful businesses listen more closely to their customers’ wants and needs, then adjust their products, policies and practices accordingly. Part of this customer-oriented shift requires customer-facing workers to have greater responsibility, authority, freedom, training and equipment to respond quickly to customer requests. This empowerment allows frontline workers to provide the great service demanded by today’s consumers.

The U.S. population is going through significant changes that are dramatically affecting where and how people live, what they buy and how they spend their time. The social environment requires companies to manage diversity, including not only minorities and women, as in the past, but also older adults, people with disabilities, married people, singles, those with a different sexual orientation, atheists, extroverts, introverts, religious people, and immigrants, to name but a few. People aged 65-74 are currently the richest demographic in the country, thus representing a lucrative market for many companies. By 2030 the popluation 65 and older will increase by 20%, and by 2050 it will more than double. Products and services for middle-aged and elderly customers will provide excellent opportunities in the 21st century. The number of single parent families is also on the rise, which has had a major affect on businesses, such as encouraging family leave programs and flextime.