Sometimes a person can be a good manager but not a good leader, and vice versa. Managers work to produce order and stability, while leaders embrace and manage change. Leadership is creating a vision for others to follow, establishing corporate values and ethics, and transforming the way the organization does business, in order to improve its effectiveness and efficiency. Good leaders motivate workers and create the environment for them to motivate themselves. Management carries out the leader’s vision.
Leaders must communicate a vision and rally others around that vision. She should be open and sensitive to the concerns of followeres, give them responsibility and win their trust. To be a successful leader, she must influence the actions of others.
Leaders must establish corporate values, including concern for employees, customers, the environment, and the quality of the company’s products. When a company sets its business goals, it is also defining its values. The number one trait others look for in a leader is honesty, followed by the leader being forward looking.
Leaders must promote corporate ethics, including an unfailing demand for honesty and an insistence that everyone in the company be treated fairly. Ethical decision making is a key component of leadership.
Leaders must embrace change. The leader’s most important job may be to transform the way the company does business so that it is more effective and efficient, doing things better with fewer resources to accomplish the same objectives.
Leaders must stress accountability and responsibility. Leaders need to be held accountable and to feel responsible for their actions. A key word is transparent, presenting the company’s facts and figures in a way that is clear and apparent to all stakeholders.
Organizations need both leaders and employees who can help lead. Any employee can motivate others to work well, add to the company’s ethical environment, and report ethical lapses that may occur. There is no one set of traits that describe a leader, nor is there one leadership style that works best in all situations. Some of the more effective leadership styles include autocratic, participant (democratic) and free-rein leadership.
Autocratic leadership means making managerial decisions without consulting others. This style is effective in emergencies and when absolute followership is needed. This form of leadership is also sometimes effective with new, relatively unskilled workers who need clear direction and guidance. The participant (democratic) leadership style involves managers and employees working together to make decisions. Employee participation in decisions may not always increase effectiveness, but it usually increases job satisfaction. Organizations that value traits such as flexibility, good listening skills and empathy often favor the participant style of leadership. Employees meet to discuss and resolve management issues by giving everyone some opportunity to contribute to decisions. And in the free-rein style of leadership the managers set objectives and allow employees freedom to do whatever is appropriate to accomplish those objectives. This style is most successful in organizations in which managers supervise professionals, such as doctors, engineers and others. The traits managers need in such organizations include warmth, friendliness and understanding. There is a trend of more companies adopting this style of leadership with at least some of their employees.
Leadership is a continuum along which employee participation varies, from purely boss-centered leadership to employee-centered leadership. The best style for any particular organization depends on what its goals and values are, who is being led, and in what situation. For example, a manager may be autocratic but friendly with a new trainee, democratic with an experienced employee, and free-reining with a trusted long-term supervisor. There is no such thing as a leadership trait that is effective in all situations, or a leadership style that always works best. As such, a successful leader in one organization may not be successful in another. A truly successful leader has the ability to adapt her leadership style to what is most appropriate to the situation and employees.
Historically many organizations used the directing process of leadership, whereby leaders gave explicit instructions to workers, telling them what to do to meet the organization’s goals and objectives. This often included giving assignments, explaining routines, clarifying policies, and providing feedback on performance. Organizations that may still use this model include fast food restaurants and small retailers, where the employees do not have the skill or experience to work on their own, at least at first. More progressive leaders empower employees to make decisions on their own, giving employees the authority to make a decision without consulting the manager, and the responsibility to respond quickly to customer requests. Managers often resist the empowerment model, feeling reluctant to give up their decision-making power. However in companies that implement this concept, the manager’s role is less that of a boss and director and more that of a coach, assistant, counselor or team member. Enabling is the key to the success of empowerment, and gives workers the education and tools they need to make decisions. Without the right education, training, coaching and tools, workers cannot take on the responsibilities of decision-making roles that make empowerment work. Many high-tech and internet companies use the empowerment model.
Finding the right information, keeping it in a readily accessible place, and making it known to everyone in the firm together constitute the tasks of knowledge management, which is necessary in empowering employees. The first step of knowledge management is determining what knowledge is most important, after which the company sets out to find answers to those questions. Knowledge management tries to keep people from reinventing the wheel every time a decision must be made. Each person should ask what he still doesn’t know, and whom to ask for the information. It is as important to know what’s not working as it is to know what is working. The key to success is learning how to process information effectively and turn it into knowledge that everyone can use to improve processes and procedures.
As fundraisers, we are trained to focus on cash gifts. After all, they are the easiest type of gift to make, right? I recently heard a presentation providing some very good evidence that from our donors’ perspective, this might not be the case at all. Professor Russell James III, the Director of Graduate Studies in Charitable Financial Planning at Texas Tech University, analyzed over a million tax returns of both individuals and nonprofit organizations in an effort to see why some organizations report what seems like astronomical growth in their fundraising programs, while others report basically flat fundraising attainment over years. The results were eye-opening: nonprofit organizations that accepted noncash gifts, including appreciated securities, grew their fundraising 6 times faster than organizations that only accepted gifts of cash. Importantly, this increase was seen in organizations at every level of fundraising. Professor James research makes it clear that noncash gifts are key to growth in any fundraising program.
If we take a look at the asset portfolios of our wealthy donors, we begin to see why cash gifts may not be the easiest types of gifts for these individuals to make. As net worth increases, the percentage of that net worth held in cash decreases, because more and more of the high net worth donor’s portfolio will be held in appreciated securities and often real estate. In general, cash only comprises 6-8% of the value of assets held by individuals, yet 90% of charitable gifts are made with cash. There’s our opportunity as savvy fundraisers.
Certainly there are challenges in accepting noncash gifts, especially gifts of property other than appreciated marketable securities. Your department, or your outside advisors, needs to understand and be ready to deal with various challenges, including:
- tax and legal issues
- environmental concerns for gifts of real estate (take note that environmental problems are extremely rare, especially those that aren’t fairly obvious during the course of a simple initial audit)
- management of noncash assets until your organization can resell them (this tends to be a concern more about staff work load than any significant financial risk)
- cumbersome internal gift acceptance processes (if you’re serious about accepting noncash gifts, you’re not going to be able to move fast enough to accept your donor’s offer if you have a board level gift acceptance committee in the way)
- inaccurate perceptions of risk vs. reward (remember, even if you have to sell an asset at below market value, your organization is still receiving a financial benefit because your cash investment in the asset is likely extremely low)
Here are some practical tips for mitigating risk:
- Don’t accept gifts of animals or livestock of any kind
- Don’t accept gifts of anything involved in transportation (cars, boats, motorcycles, snowmobiles, etc.)
- Don’t accept gifts of timeshares or cemetery plots
- Have some outside experts readily available to help you with the tax and legal concerns, and to help manage property/assets until sale if your staff is too busy to take this task on
I encourage you to read Professor James research for more information on the amazing opportunities presented by the ability to accept noncash gifts for your organization.
After planning a course of action, managers must organize the company to accomplish their goals, including allocating resources, assigning tasks and establishing procedures. The managerial heirarchy includes top management, the highest level such as the president and other key executives who develop strategic plans. This often includes the chief executive officer (CEO), chief operating officer (COO), chief financial officer (CFO) and chief information officeer (CIO), although it has become more commonplace to see companies eliminate the COO position.
The CEO is often also the company’s president and is responsible for all top-level decision making, including introducing change to the company. Her tasks include structuring work, controlling operations and rewarding people to ensure that everyone works to carry out her vision. The CFO is responsible for obtaining funds, planning budgets, collecting funds and such. The CIO is responsible to get the right information to other managers so they can make correct decisions, and is more important than ever to the success of the company given the crucial role that information technology has come to play in every business.
Middle management includes general managers, division managers and branch and plant managers who are responsible for tactical planning and controlling. Many middle management positions have been eliminated in recent years due to cost cutting and down-sizing, and the companies have given the remaining managers more employees to supervise. Middle managers are an important role to most businesses.
Supervisory management includes those directly responsible for supervising workers and evaluating their daily performance, and are often known as first-line managers or supervisors.
People are typically not taught to be managers, but due to their skill move up the corporate ladder and become managers. They tend to become deeply involved in showing others how to do things, helping and supervising them, and generally being active in the operating task. The further up the ladder she moves, the less important her original job skills. At the top of the ladder, the need is for people who are visionaries, planners, organizers, coordinators, communicators, morale builders and motivators. A successful manager must have technical skills, human relations skills and conceptual skills.
Technical skills involve the ability to perform tasks in a specific discipline or department; human relations skills involve communication and motivation and enable managers to work through and with people, and also include skills associated with leadership; and conceptual skills involve the ability to see the organization as a whole and the relationship among its various parts. Conceptual skills are required in planning, organizing, controlling, systems development, problem analysis, decision making, coordinating and delegating. First-line managers need skills in all three areas, but spend most of their time on technical and human relations tasks, such as assisting operating personnel and giving directions. On the other hand, top managers need few technical skills and spend almost all of their time on human relations and conceptual tasks. Thus a person who is successful as a supervisor might not be competent at higher levels and vice versa.
Staffing is a management function that includes hiring, motivating and retaining the best people available to accomplish the company’s objectives. To get the right kind of people to staff an organization, the company has to offer the right kinds of incentives. Many people will not work for companies where they are not treated well or get fair pay. They may leave to find a better balance between work and home. A company with innovative and creative workers can go from a start-up to a major competitor in just a few years. Staffing has become an increased part of each manager’s assignment, and all managers need to cooperate with human resource management to get and keep good workers.
More recently, social media manager has become one of the fastest growing careers. Social media continues to grow in importance as it presents the face and voice of an organization. Social media managers need to be curious, able to adapt quickly, and understand the role social media plays in the organization’s goals. They also need skills in writing, graphic and video design, public speaking, customer service and community engagement, behavioral psychology, analyzing social media metrics and budgeting. Being proficient in some of these areas is more important than being strong in all of them.
As we approach the holiday season, many of us are feeling disconnected from the people, activities, or things that ground us and make us feel part of a greater whole. So, on this day before Thanksgiving, in the year 2020, I wanted to tell you about Window Swap. Window Swap is an amazing website that allows you, with a simple click, to look out the windows of fellow users all over the world. Right now I’m gazing out Derek’s window, through some basil and rosemary plants, onto an unusually quiet street in New York City, with the background noise of life providing comforting white noise. I’ve been to Prague, to the UAE, to Geneva, and to Kentucky this week. I love having my windows open at home, now office, so Window Swap is a perfect backdrop to my day.
Click here to find a new window to the world. There’s no registration or information sharing required.
May you find gratitude, find the little things that sustain your soul, find safety, and find joy.
Planning and Decision Making
The number one upper management function is planning – setting the organization’s vision, goals and objectives. Planning is often described as an executive’s most valuable tool. Let’s break it down. It is a continuous process that often follows a pattern, answering several fundamental questions: (1) What is the situation now? This includes a SWOT analysis of the organization’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunties and the threats it faces. Often opportunities and threats are external and can’t be aniticpated, while weaknesses and strengths are typically internal and can be measured and fixed. (2) How can we get to our goal from here? The answer to this question is typically the most important part of planning, and can take one of four forms: strategic, tactical, operational or contingency.
A vision is a broad explanation of why the organization exists and where it’s trying to go. It gives the organization a sense of purpose and a set of values that unite employees in a common objective. Top management typically sets the organization’s vision, and often works with others to create a mission statement. A mission statement outlines the organization’s fundamental purpose, and includes its self concept, philosphy, long-term survival needs, customer needs, social responsibility and nature of the product/services. The mission statement becomes the foundation for setting specific goals and objectives.
Goals are the broad, long-term accomplishments an organization seeks to attain. Setting goals is often a team process, aimed at buy-in from both employees and management. And objectives are specific, short-term statements detailing how to achieve the organization’s goals.
Strategic planning is done by top management and determines the organization’s major goals, along with the policies, procedures, strategies and resources it will need to achieve them. Policies are broad guidelines for action, while strategies determine the best way to use the resources. In strategic planning, top management decides which customers to serve, when to do so, what products or services to sell, and the geographic areas in which to compete, but it is important for them to engage those with potentially the best strategic insights, their employees. In today’s rapidly changing environment, strategic planning is becoming more difficult because changes are occuring so fast that plans quickly become obsolete. The idea is to be flexible and responsive to the market, allowing for quick responses to customer needs and requests.
Tactical planning develops detailed, short-term statements about what is to be done, who is to do it, and how it is to be done, and is typically a function of lower level managers. Operational planning is the setting of work standards and schedules needed to implement the company’s tactical objectives. It focuses on specific supervisors, managers and employees, and is the manager’s tool for daily and weekly operations. Contingency planning prepares alternative courses of action the company can use if its primary plans don’t work. In our ever-changing environment it is good practice to have alternative plans of action ready. Crisis planning is part of contingency planning and anticipates sudden changes in the environment. Rather than creating detailed strategic plans, the leaders of companies that respond quickly to changes in competition or other environmental changes often simply set a direction. They want to stay flexible, listen to their customers, and seize opportunities, expected or not.
Decision making means choosing among two or more alternatives, and is at the heart of all management functions. The rational decision making model is often followed to make intelligent, logical and well-founded decisions. Its six steps are as follows:
- Define the situation
- Describe and collect needed information
- Develop alternatives
- Decide which alternative is best
- Do what is indicated (begin implementation)
- Determine whether the decision was a good one, and follow up
Sometimes, however, managers have to make decisions on the spot and can’t go through this six step process. Problem solving is less forman than decision making and usually calls for quicker action to resolve everyday issues. Problem solving techniques include brainstorming, coming up with as many solutions as possible in a short period of time with no censoring of ideas, and PMI, listing all of the pluses for a solution in one column, all the minuses in another, and the implications in a third, with the goal to make sure the pluses exceed the minuses. Both decision making and problem solving require managers to use their best judgment.
More details regarding Paycheck Protection Act loan forgiveness emerged from the US Small Business Administration last week that make it much easier for those who received PPP loans of less than $50,000 to apply for forgiveness. While the loan forgiveness process will still be administered by your lending bank and is not automatic, as some had hoped, stay tuned for a much simpler form for use with smaller loans. Robert Jackson from the Apple Growth Partners COVID-19 Response Team wrote this recent post summarizing the new process.
New PPP Loan Forgiveness Form from the SBA
Monday, October, 12, 2020
Over this past weekend, the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) posted a new loan forgiveness form to the public for those who received a Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) loan of $50,000 or less. The new form, form 3508S, is much simpler than both the long form (form 3508) and the EZ form (form 3508EZ). While the form states that it is for those who received a PPP loan of $50,000 or less, note that a borrower cannot use the new form if the borrower, together with their affiliates, received total loans of $2,000,000 or more.
In addition to the $50,000 threshold, a borrower can use the new form if –
- The requested forgiveness amount was used to pay costs that are eligible for forgiveness;
- The borrower used at least 60% of the requested amount on payroll costs; and
- The requested forgiveness amount took into consideration the applicable owner-employee or self-employed individual/general partner compensation caps.
The borrower does not need to show any calculations of the loan forgiveness amount on or with the form, as they would have to do with the long form or the EZ form. Furthermore, the borrower is exempt from applying the complicated loan forgiveness salary and FTE reductions when using the new form 3508S.
With the new form also comes simpler procedures for lenders.
As noted above, the $50,000 threshold applies to the original loan amount, not the amount of forgiveness being requested. It is also not a blanket forgiveness, which is something that lenders had been pushing for in the past few months. A borrower must still retain records that support the calculation of the forgiveness amount being requested.
The announcement of the simpler form comes about a week after the opening of the loan forgiveness season by the SBA. While it is not what many borrowers and lenders were hoping for, it will still ease the time burden on smaller businesses and their lenders. Keep in mind that banks are using their own equivalent online forms for loan forgiveness applications, so eligible borrowers should first check with your bank to see when the new form will be available to file with your bank.
To access the newly released Form 3508S, click here.
To access the instructions to Form 3508S, click here.
Contact our COVID-19 Response Team for questions on the new forgiveness forms.
Robert Jackson, CPA
This week we’d like to share a blog written by the Nonprofit Practice Leaders of the global accounting firm, BDO, and the BDO Institute for Nonprofit Excellence. Interestingly, BauerGriffith was founded after the financial crisis of 2008, at a time when it became clear that nonprofits must not only operate with a clear view of their mission, but also a clear business strategy. Successful nonprofits have made that shift, which has, we believe, allowed many to achieve stability in their operations, if not thrive, in the wake of the economic challenges brought on by the pandemic. This survey report fleshes out this concept and presents some very helpful information for any nonprofit as they plan for the next 12-18 months — and beyond. We thank our friends at the BDO Institute for Nonprofit Excellence for their service to the sector.
By Nonprofit Practice Leaders | June 17, 2020
From the global pandemic to growing economic uncertainty in the midst of an election year, nonprofits are being called upon—and challenged—like never before. Unsurprisingly, these organizations are rising to the occasion, adapting their programs and delivering aid to critical areas of need. But the journey is far from over, and now more than ever, nonprofit organizations need to be able to sustain their critical work.
The BDO Institute for Nonprofit ExcellenceSM is proud to announce its fourth annual benchmarking survey, Nonprofit Standards. The survey is intended to help nonprofit leaders prepare for the future, balance a nonprofit heart and business mindset, and gauge their well-being across key areas of focus, including crisis response, technology, downturn preparedness, policy and funding.
To learn how your nonprofit measures up, download the full report.
Part 1 – The Manager
In the past, managers were called bosses and did their jobs by telling people what to do, watching over them to ensure they did it, and reprimanding those who did not. While some managers still behave this way, the role has evolved. Most managers today are more collaborative, emphasizing teams and team building. They tend to guide, train, support, motivate and coach employees rather than tell them what to do. They use cooperation rather than order giving and discipline. They give their employees enough independence to make their own informed decisions about how best to get the job done.
Managers must practice the art of getting things done through organizational resources, including workers, financial resources and equipment. They communicate strategy, help employees prioritize projects, facilitate cooperation and ensure that processes and systems align with company goals. Managers have evolved from years past. They are skilled communicators, team players, planners, organizers, motivators and leaders.
Management is the process used to accomplish organizational goals through planning, organizing, leading and controlling people and other organizational resources. These four functions are the heart of management.
Planning includes anticipating trends and determining the best strategies and tactics to achieve organizational goals and objectives. Planning is a key management function because accomplishing the other functions depends heavily on having a good plan. Organizing is a management function that includes designing the structure of the organization and creating conditions and systems in which everyone and everything work together to achieve the organization’s goals and objectives. Organizations must remain flexible and adaptable to meet changing customer needs, and it is the manager’s job to follow these trends and shift accordingly. Leading means creating a vision for the organization and communicating, guiding, training, coaching and motivating others to achieve goals and objectives in a timely manner. The trend is to empower employees by giving them freedom to become self-directed and self-motivated. Controlling is a management function that establishes clear standards to determine whether an organization is progressing toward its goals and objectives, rewarding people for a job well done and taking corrective action as appropriate.